Britton & Brown Illustrated Flora - 2nd Edition (1913)
An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada
Medicinal Plant excerpts
Nathaniel Lord Britton (1857-1934) was the first director-in-chief of The New York Botanical Garden and a giant of a taxonomist. From 1896 to 1898 he published the three-volume landmark floristic study An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada (Brown financed it), and revised it again in 1913. There are about 4,600 monographs, each illustrated, with a terse taxonomic description and approximate distribution...little capsuled data kernels that I have scanned and updated botanically. It was revised in 1956 by Gleason, but that version is still copyrighted, so here I am with these three monster books from 1913. Dover has also published these titles, which are still readily available...haven't seen them, just have my three big maroon volumes.
I have extracted all the plants that have substantial therapeutic use, either pharmaceutical or herbal, by the eclectic or physio-medicalist or homeopathic medical sects of the time, or that have widespread former or current Native American use. I have cut some corners...there are 39 Salix monographs, all willows are useful, so I have included the four most widely used species. Some herbs may seem obscure, but I know them to be of value. Some plants are at risk or endangered...were then, are now. I just figure knowledge is power, and as much of this site is heavily tilted towards the North American West, this is some broadening of scope.
All files are gifs, and approximately 1000 X 650 pixels and 30 to 40 K in size.
VOLUME I - Ophioglossaceae to Polygonaceae
Abies_balsamea.gif - Balsam Fir
Acorus_calamus.gif - Sweet Flag
Adiantum_capillus-veneris.gif - Maiden-hair Fern
Adiantum_pedatum.gif - Western Maiden-hair Fern
Agropyron repens.gif - Couchgrass
Aletris_farinosa.gif - Stragrass, "True" Unicorn Root
Alisma_subcordatum.gif - Water Plantain
Alnus_incana.gif - Black or Tag Alder
Aplectrum_hyemale.gif - Adam-and-Eve Root
Arisaema_dracontium.gif - Green Dragon
Arisaema_pusillum.gif - Little Jack-in-the-Pulpit
Arisaema_stewardsonii.gif - Stewardson's Indian Turnip
Arisaema_triphyllum.gif - Jack-in-the-Pulpit, Indian Turnip
Aristolochia_clematitis.gif - European Birthwort
Aristolochia_macrophylla.gif - Dutchman's Pipe
Aristolochia_serpentaria.gif - Virginia Snakeroot
Aristolochia_tomentosa.gif - Woolly Pipe-Vine, Woolly Dutchman's Pipe
Asarum_canadense.gif - Wild Ginger
Asparagus_officinalis.gif - Asparagus
Asplenium_scolopendrium.gif - Hart's Tongue
Avena_fatua.gif - Wild Oat
Avena_sativa.gif - Cultivated Oat
Betula_alleghaniensis.gif - Southern Yellow Birch
Betula_lenta.gif - Sweet Birch
Betula_papyrifera.gif - Paper Birch
Boehmeria_cylindrica.gif - False Nettle
Botrychium_virginianum.gif - Virginia Grape Fern
Calypso_bulbosa.gif - Calypso
Cannabis_sativa.gif - Hemp, Marijuana
Carya_alba.gif - White Hickory
Carya_ovata.gif - Shagbark Hickory
Castanea_dentata.gif - Chestnut
Chamaelirium_luteum.gif - Unicorn Root, Blazing Star, Devil's Bit, and, incorrectly, "False" Unicorn
Clintonia_borealis.gif - Yellow Clintonia
Commelina_communis.gif - Asiatic Dayflower
Commelina_virginica.gif - Virginia Dayflower
Comptonia_peregrina.gif - Sweet Fern
Convallaria_majalis.gif - Lily of the Valley
Corallorrhiza_maculata.gif - Coral Root, Crawley
Corallorrhiza_odontorhiza.gif - Little Coral Root
Corallorrhiza_striata.gif - Striped Coral Root
Corylus_rostrata.gif - Beaked Hazelnut
Cypripedium_acaule.gif - Pink Lady Slipper
Cypripedium_passerinum.gif - Northern Lady bSlipper
Cypripedium_pubescens.gif - Yellow Lady Slipper
Cypripedium_reginae.gif - Showy Lady Slipper
Dioscorea_villosa.gif - Wild Yam
Dryopteris_filix-mas.gif - Male Fern
Dryopteris_marginalis.gif - Wood Fern
Epipactis_helleborine.gif - Helleborine, Stream Orchid
Equisetum_arvense.gif - Field Hosetail
Equisetum_hyemale.gif - Scouring Rush
Equisetum_pratense.gif - Meadow Horsetail
Erythronium_americanum.gif - Yellow Adder's Tongue
Fagus_grandifolia.gif - American Beech
Goodyera_pubescens.gif - Downy Rattlesnake Plantain
Goodyera_repens.gif - Rattlesnake Plantain
Goodyera_tesselata.gif - Checkered Rattlesnake Plantain
Helonias_bullata.gif - Swamp Pink
Hierochloë_odorata.gif - Sweet Grass
Humulus_lupulus.gif - Hops
Iris_germanica.gif - Orris Root
Iris_missouriensis.gif - Western Blue Flag
Iris_versicolor.gif - Blue Flag
Juglans_cinerea.gif - Butternut
Juglans_nigra.gif - Black Walnut
Juniperus_communis.gif - Common Juniper
Juniperus_sibirica.gif - Northern Juniper
Juniperus_virginiana.gif - Red Cedar, Savin
Laportea_canadensis.gif - Wood Nettle
Larix_laricina.gif - American Larch, Tamarack
Lilium_canadense.gif - Canadian Lily
Lilium_tigrinum.gif - Tiger Lily
Lycopodium_clavatum.gif - Club Moss
Maclura_pomifera.gif - Osage Orange
Morus_alba.gif - White Mulberry
Morus_rubra.gif - Red Mulberry
Myrica_carolinensis.gif - Small Bayberry
Myrica_cerifera.gif - Bayberry
Myrica_gale.gif - Sweet Gale
Ophioglossum_engelmanni.gif - Englemann's Adder's Tongue
Ophioglossum_vulgatum.gif - Adder's Tongue
Orontium_aquaticum.gif - Golden Club
Osmunda_cinnamomea.gif - Cinnamon Fern
Osmunda_regalis.gif - Royal Fern
Ostrya_virginiana.gif - Hop Hornbeam
Parietaria_pennsylvanica.gif - Pellitory
Phoradendron_flavescens.gif - American Mistletoe
Picea_canadensis.gif - White Spruce
Picea_mariana.gif - Black Spruce
Pilea_pumila.gif - Rich Weed, Cool Weed
Pinus_palustris.gif - Georgia Pine
Pinus_strobus.gif - White Pine
Polygonatum_biflorum-comm.gif - Smooth or Giant Solomon's Seal
Polygonatum_biflorum.gif - Solomon's Seal
Polygonum_amphibium.gif - Water Persicaria
Polygonum_bistorta.gif - Bistort
Polygonum_hydropiper.gif - Smartweed
Polygonum_hydropiperoides.gif - Western Smartweed
Polygonum_pensylvanicum.gif - Pennsylvania Smartweed
Polygonum_persicaria.gif - Lady's Thumb
Polypodium_vulgare.gif - Common Polypody
Populus_alba.gif - White Poplar
Populus_angustifolia.gif - Narrow-leaved Cottonwood
Populus_balsam-balsam.gif - Balm of Gilead
Populus_balsamifera.gif - Balsam Poplat, Tacamahack
Populus_deltoides.gif - Cottonwood
Populus_nigra.gif - Black Poplar
Populus_tremuloides.gif - Aspen
Quercus_alba.gif - White Oak
Quercus_rubra.gif - Red Oak
Rumex_acetosa.gif - Sorrel
Rumex_acetosella.gif - Sheep Sorrel
Rumex_crispus.gif - Yellow Dock
Sagittaria_cuneata.gif - Arum-leaved Arrowhead
Sagittaria_latifolia.gif - Broad-leaved Arrowhead
Salix_alba.gif - White Willow
Salix_fragilis.gif - Crack Willow
Salix_nigra.gif - Black Willow
Salix_purpurea.gif - Purple Willow
Saururus_cernuus.gif - Swamp Root, Lizard Tail
Sisyrinchium_albidum.gif - White Blue-eyed-Grass
Sisyrinchium_angustifolium.gif - Pointed Blue-eyed-Grass, Blue-eyed Mary
Smilacina_racemosa.gif - False Solomon's Seal
Smilacina_stellata.gif - Starry Solomon's Seal
Smilacina_trifolia.gif - Three-leaved Solomon's Seal
Smilax_bona-nox.gif - Bristly Greenbrier
Smilax_glauca.gif - Smooth Greenbrier
Smilax_herbacea.gif - Carrion Flower
Smilax_hispida.gif - Bristly Sarsaparilla
Smilax_pseudochina.gif - Greenbrier
Smilax_rotundifolia.gif - Greenbrier, Roundleaf Sarsaparilla
Symplocarpus_foetidus.gif - Eastern Skunk Cabbage
Taxus_canadensis.gif - American Yew
Thuja_occidentalis.gif - White Cedar, Arbor Vitae
Tradescantia_occidentalis.gif - Western Spiderwort
Tradescantia_virginiana.gif - Spiderwort
Trillium_erectum.gif - Birthroot
Trillium_grandiflorum.gif - Large Wake-robin
Trillium_sessile.gif - White Trillium
Tsuga_canadensis.gif - Hemlock
Typha_latifolia.gif - Broadleaf Cattail
Ulmus_rubra.gif - Slippery Elm
Urtica_dioica.gif - Stinging Nettle
Urtica_gracilis.gif - Slender Nettle
Urtica_urens.gif - Dwarf Nettle
Veratrum_viride.gif - False or Green Hellebore
Yucca_baccata.gif - Banana Yucca
Yucca_glauca.gif - Soapweed Yucca
All images, 4 to a page at 200 dpi for printing - Acrobat .pdf file, 38 pages, 3.7 MB
VOLUME II - Amaranthaceae to Loganaceae
VOLUME III - Gentianaceae to Compositae
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